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99. Glossary of Web terminology

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Glossary
Updated 16 Feb 02
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Term Jargon Buster See Tutorial
56K The 56K in a modems name refers to the amount of data measured in kilobytes that can be handled in 1 second.  
../ The code to move up one directory. See Relative reference  
<body>
</body>
An element tag, consists of the open delimiter: < or </ , the identifier: BODY in this case, and close delimiter: > 2 <body>
2 HTML Element Tags
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Absolute reference A reference to a file or webpage that contains the full address. E.G. The home page is:
http://www.tutorials4u.com/html/index.htm
See Relative reference
7
ADSL Asymmetric digital subscriber line. Converts a phone line into a fast 'broadband' net connection, approximatly 10 times faster than a 56K modem. Residential ADSL services usually download at 512kbps and upload at 256kbps  
analogue    
Anchor

Named anchors let you set markers in a document and are often placed at a specific topic or at the top of a document. You can then create links to these named anchors, which quickly take your visitor to the specified position. Also known as a target.

Tutorial 7-Linking to an Anchor
Antialiasing

The pixels that make up lines on a computer are square shaped, and display horizontal and vertical lines perfectly. A jagged step effect occurs when curved or angled lines are displayed.

Antialiasing is a method for smoothing out these these steps. Additional pixels of an interim neutral colour are inserted along the steps. The effect is to blur the line thus helping to disguise the jagged edge.

 
Applet Applet is a very small application, ranging from very simple, single function programs to larger ones such as Windows calculator or Notepad.  
Attachment An attachment is a computer file such as a picture, sound, word processor document, that can be attached to an e-mail and sent to another computer.  
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Bandwidth Bandwidth is measured in Mbs, Megabits per second. or Kbs, Kilobits per second. The amount of data that can travel along an internet connection in a second. A typical modern modem has a bandwidth of 56kbps, thats 57344 bits of data per second in theory, in actual usage many factors prevent this speed being achieved.  
Binary digit See bit  
Bit A bit is a binary digit, that can only have 2 numerical states, usually represented by either 0 or 1. There are 8 bits in a byte. In electical terms these values can represent the state of on or off  
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When writing e-mails work offline to reduce your telephone bill.

 



One way of getting to know your computer is to'fiddle'
Check out the menus in applications. Use help and any tutorials within help.

 



Students can save money by buying Student Licence Software. Note any restrictions that may apply.

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Bookmark See Favorites  
Boolean logic You can use Boolean logic in search engine queries to try to pin down the search results to what you are looking for. This is achieved by the use of OR, AND or NOT  
Broadband A high bandwith interconnection faster than 128kbps such as ADSLand cable.  
Browse The process of looking at (browsing) web page using a Web Browser, usually shortened to browser.  
Browser See Web Browser  
buses    
Byte A byte is 8 bits  
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Cable Residential cable services are an alternative method of connecting to the internet. Download speeds from the internet are usualy 512kbps and upload speeds at 256kbps. Check with you cable service supplier such as NTL for details  
Cascading Style Sheets See CSS  
CGI Common Gateway Interface. A CGI file is a script that facilitates the passing of data from a server to an application via the Net.  
Client A client computer is a computer that send requests to a server computer that can processes that request. On the web your computer's browser requests a server to download a web page.  
Close delimiter An element tag, consists of the open delimiter: <, the identifier: BODY in this case, and close delimiter: > 2 HTML Element Tags
Common Gateway Interface See CGI  
Cookie A small text filed saved on your hard disk by websites, they can be used to say store your password for a particular site, or remember your name, the number of times you have visited that site. They can also store information about you and your surfing habits, and along with a network system can obtain a fair amount of information about you. You can disable cookies in your browser, but many sites will then not work. You can also delete cookies via the control panel, including automatic deletion. There are programs available to manage cookies.  
     
CSS Cascading Style Sheets allow you to globally define text styles for a web site. They act like templates that tell the Browser how to interpritate the HTML code. It is a very easy way to coordinate the look of some or all off your pages so that by changing the style sheet all your pages can be changed accordingly. See also Style Sheets 3a Style sheets
Cybersquatter A person who registers an internet domain name, hoping to sell it at a profit.  
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data . kilobytes , instructions, I/O, megabyte . motherboard . peripherals . RAM . ROM . servers . words .    
Data Transfer Data Transfer is the total data that is transmitted from a server to the rest of the internet and is measured in MB, Megabytes  
Delimiter A delimiter are the markers for the start and end of element tags such as <body></body> which consists of the open delimiter: < or </ , the identifier: BODY in this case, and close delimiter: > Besisides the identifier delimiters can also enclose attributes, e.g.
<TD bgcolor="#CCFF99" align="center">
2 HTML Element Tags
Denial of Service Swamping a website's host (the sites server) with thousands of requests for pages beyond the ability of the server and thus crashing it.  
digital    
Directory

1). A directory is very similar to a Search engine. Entries are categorised under various sections and sub sections.

2). A Directory can be part of the stucture of your web site. Has the same meaning to Windows folders. E.g. html and graphics are both directories in the following URL
http://tutorials4u.com/html/graphics/some.gif

List of Search Engines and Directories
Download Downloading is a process of transfering files from another computer onto your own computer via the internet. You are automatically downloading web pages when you "surf" the net with a browser.  
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E-mail    
End-tag </html> is an example of a end-tag. The / denotes an end-tag from a start-tag. See <body> , Start-tag , Delimiter 2 HTML Element Tags
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Favorite A web page that you visit frequently can be saved in a special favorites folder by Internet Explorer. Netscape call this process Bookmarking.  
Firewall A firewall prevents unauthorised access to your computer from the internet or network. A firewall can be hardware, usually used by businesses, or software used by home users. A popular software firewall is Zone Alarm FireWalls
Forms    
Frame See Frameset.  
Frameset Framesets define each frame of a frame based website. For each frame, they define its location on the page, its size, if resizing or scrolling is permitted, and what the defaut page will be.  
FTP File Transfer Protocol:used for file uploads and downloads. It is faster than using http and a browser  
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GHz A Gigahertz is a thousand megahertz. A measurment of how fast the processor is in a PC.  
GIFF One of the graphic file formats used on the web. Giff files can be still or animated, and can contain a transparent colour. Other formats: JPG JPEG and PNG 6 Graphics
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Hacking A term used by the media and the general public to describe illegal access to computer systems by unautherised users. The correct terminology for this is "cracker"  
Hierarchy How things are arranged in successive subordinate levels or classes  
Home page A web page that acts as an entry point to your web site. Usually the home page has one of the special file names that open automatically if a file name is not quoted. Index.html is one of these special file names.  
Host, Hosting See Web Host  
HTML HyperText Markup Language, is the code that describes the Structure of a Page, by the use of HTML you can change the appearance of that page. Easily recognised by the tags such as <p> that it uses. Originally this code had to be hand written. Now modern HTML editors and authoring tools, do the hard work for you. It is always useful to know how to code by hand. Web browsers can display other types of files but HTML is the most popular.  
HTTP Hyper Text Transfer Protocol used for viewing web pages. One of the protocols used for Web connections. URLs that use this <A href="#Protocol">protocol</A> start with http:/
E.g. http://tutorials4u.com
 
Hyperlink

Hyperlinks often shortened to links, are part of a website, e-mail or document that when clicked directs you to the the relevent Web page, or to an anchor marking a specified position on a page, or in a document. By default the text of a link is in blue and underlined. When you have visited a page the links then change colour, by default a dark red. These defaults can be changed by the Web master.

Hyperlinks contain HTML code references, that point to other Web pages or anchors.

 
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Image map An image that has sections of the image that are links to other pages or anchors  
Internet A global network of computers and servers.  
IP address A computers  
ISP An Internet Service Provider provides you with connection to the internet. ISP examples are AOL, More information- Tutorial 01  
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Java    
Java applet    
JPEG JPG One of the graphic file formats used on the web. JPEG or JPG files can't be animated, and can't contain a transparent colour. Other formats: GIFF and PNG 6 Graphics
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Kbps Kilobits per second. A measurement of data transfer or modem speed. Modern modems are 56Kbps  
Keywords

Keywords such as tutorial and T171 are used with a META tag as follows:
<META name="keywords" content="tutorial,T171"
These keyword help to promote your site with search engines.

Keywords is also a term given to the words or phases that you enter into a search engine in order to search for some information.

 

s

kilobytes A kilobyte is 1024 bytes  
Using Search Engine
spaceSearch this site for a word or phrase.
Place phrases inside "double quotes"

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Link See Hyperlink.  
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Mirror Site    
META tags Are placed in the HEAD section of a Web page. There are several of them. The common ones deal with,  
Modem You require a modem, a device that uses the phone line to connect you to an ISP and then on to the internet.  
N A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z     Top
Named anchors See Anchor  
Navigation Navigation is a method of moving (navigating, using links and to other positions on the current page or different pages. Or from navigating to different pages or sites.  
O A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z     Top
open delimiter An element tag, consists of the open delimiter: <, the identifier: such as BODY , and close delimiter: > See <body> 2 HTML Element Tags
P Q A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z     Top
Perl    
Ping Packet Internet Groper
A ping is a message sent out from a sender to a specific destination. On reciept of the ping, the destination bounces back an acknowledment, letting the sender know that the recipient is there. A ping time for the journey is measured in milliseconds. Besides the legitamate use of pings, a ping is used by a 'hacker' to find if a computer is online. Firewalls can prevent the return of the acknowledge signal thus helping to defeat the hacker.
 
PNG Portable Network Graphics. A file format that combines many of the benefits of other graphic formats,GIF and JPEG. PNG supports many levels of transparency and more than 256 colours, and additional support for image brightness.  
Pop-up navigation    
Pop-up Window    
Protocol    
R A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z     Top
Relative reference This reference does the same job as an absolute reference, but misses out most of the address. The file is found based on the location current of the current file
../ is used to move up (towards the root directory) one directory. The Home page reference is
index.htm
See ../ , absolute reference
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Resolution The amount of detail shown in an image.  
Resolution- Monitors The resolution for monitors is the number of pixels that it can display. The popular resolutions are 800x600, 1024x768, 640x480.  
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Search engine

Search Engines are sites that that offer a service to help you find information. These sites index the names, addresses and wording in web sites and place this data into a database. When you type in your search criteria such as HTML tags body into the input box of the search engine the engine searches its database for these words or phrases, and returns a list of sites that match the criteria. You will be taught how, as a webmaster you can inprove your site in an attempt to raise the position you turn up in this list of sites.

A search engine archives the contents of web sites into a searchable database. By entering a suitable keyword, keywords or phrase into the search engine, you can obtain a list of pages that contain the entered word(s)

Search engines
Server A shared, central computer that is either directly or indirectly linked, and accessable to other remote computers. The internet consists of many thousands of servers. Web pages are stored on servers.  
Spy Ware A program that is placed on your computer, often without your knowlege, that spies on you browsing habits and reports its findings back to its masters via the web. Spyware can be removed by using the free program Ad-aware  
Start-tag <html> is an example of a start-tag. See <body> , End tag , Delimiter 2 HTML Tags
Style Sheets HTML 4 document allows the referencing of a seperate external file, which defines the exact appeance of elements and document characteristics. A uniform site look can be given to all pages that reference (link to) this external style sheet. See also CSS 3a Style Sheets
T

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Tag    
transparent GIF A transparent GIF allows the background to show through selected parts of an image. The GIF designers nominates one colour, usually the background colour, to be transparent.

Most modern . Web Browsers that don't support transparent GIFs display images as normal GIFs.

 
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URL

Uniform Resource Locator, is the current meaning but originally it was Universal Resource Locator.
The URL is the websites full address. In most browsers you can see the URL of the page you are looking at in the Locaton: window. The URL for this page is
http://www.tutorials4u.com/html/tutorial-99-web-terminology.htm

http:/ the <A href="#Protocol">protocol</A>
www.tutorials4u.com the domain or server
/html/ the directory, you may have more than 1 directory
tutorial-99-web-terminology.htm the file, an HTML webpage in this example
 
Upload Uploading is the oposite to downloading. a webmaster will upload a new or ammended web page to a server so that the page can be downloaded and viewed by a person surfing the web and selecting the URL for that page  
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vector graphics Vector graphics are a method of drawing where the lines of the graphic are stored as mathmatical information called vectors. This allows for the drawing to be scalled up or down without loss of detail  
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Web Browser A program that lets you view internet web pages directly from the internet, or web page files stored on a drive on your compute. The most widely used one is Microsofts Internet Explorer, followed by Netscape Navigator.  
Web Host A Web host is a company that stores its customers webpages for on their Web Servers. The customer is given a password so that the web pages either, new or ammended, for that customer can be uploaded. The web Host's computer is called a Web Server Hosting
Webmaster The webmaster is the title given to anyone in charge of managing a Web site.  
Web site All of the pages, files and graphic images on the web server make up your site. You will also have all these files on your own computer this is known as a local site. The local site make maintanence easier. You can update the local site, then upload changed files.  
WWW

The World Wide Web is an Interactive Dynamic Cross-Platform Graphical and Easy to Navigate Hypertext Information System.Think of the WWW as part of the Internet where graphical and textual Web pages live. You can view these pages using a Web Browser.

The World Wide Webis a network of information resources, and uses URLs, a Uniform naming scheme, protocols (e.g. HTTP) for access to the resources, and Hypertext (e.g. HTML) for navigation

 
X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z     Top
XML Extensible Markup Language, is a language used to define and create other specialized markup languages languages.  
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